In 2015, world leaders agreed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). Its goal is to end poverty in all its forms everywhere, with a specific target to eradicate extreme poverty by 2030 and a commitment to leave no one behind. Achieving these ambitions will be much harder than meeting the Millennium Development Goals. It will require a different mindset, and new ways of measuring and monitoring progress.

This report focuses on the global P20, the poorest 20% of people in the world. Agenda 2030 puts forward a comprehensive framework of 17 goals, 169 targets and 230 indicators. There is a risk that attention to the poorest people will be lost in this complexity and monitoring efforts will get bogged down in the detail. The P20 Initiative will try to keep the focus on the bigger picture, using three simple ‘bellwethers’ drawn from the SDG framework and based on income, nutrition and civil registration.

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